Learn More About Thyroid Disease And Diagnostic Method Of Thyroid

The thyroid gland is an important part of hormone production and helps balance normal life activities. When the thyroid gland has problems, it also affects the health of the patient. Therefore, understanding typical thyroid diseases and diagnostic methods is the information we all need to be concerned with.

What Is Thyroid Disease?

What is thyroid disease? Thyroid disease is an abnormal condition that occurs in the thyroid gland, causing effects to varying degrees, impairing the patient's quality of life.

To better understand thyroid disease, we need to learn about the structure and function of the thyroid gland to have the most specific view.

Understand the function of the thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly, located in the front of the neck (located in front of the trachea), on a par with the vertebrae C5 – T11.

The structure of the thyroid gland consists of 2 lobes of the left and right lobes, which are raised together through the strait. Functionally, the thyroid gland stores and releases two hormones, T3 (Tri-iodothyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine) and contributes to the control of the body's metabolism.

In the case of a well-functioning thyroid, the metabolic rate in our body stays at a stable level, not too fast or too slow.

The organ that controls the thyroid gland is the pituitary gland, a gland located inside the brain. The pituitary gland produces a hormone called TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland, which helps to notify the thyroid of when to release the hormone.

When a thyroid disorder occurs, it can be caused by too little or too much-secreted thyroid hormones, causing the body's metabolism to be unstable and causing health problems.

According to many research results, the rate of thyroid disease increases with age, accounting for about 30% in adults aged 18 – 65 years old. In particular, the rate of women suffering from the disease is usually 5 times higher than that of men.

However, thyroid diseases are often overlooked in about 20-60% of cases, only when the patient accidentally does a physical exam or when the disease progresses in a severe stage, this causes hindrance in the course of disease treatment and the rate of recovery after treatment.

Common Thyroid Diseases

Is thyroid disease dangerous? There are many types of thyroid diseases, depending on the specific condition of each patient, the level of danger to the health is different.

For example, benign thyroid tumors are found at an early stage, the prognosis is very good. On the contrary, if it is a malignant thyroid tumor but detected late, the treatment is difficult, the rate of recovery will be greatly reduced.

Specifically, there are currently typical thyroid diseases as follows:


Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid doesn't produce enough of the hormone thyroxine to meet the body's normal metabolic needs.

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is usually thyroiditis, most notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

When you have thyroiditis, it will cause the immune system to mistake thyroid cells for causing disease in the body.

Because of this, the body produces destructive white blood cells that attack and destroy the thyroid gland.

Not only that, but the pituitary gland also releases the hormone TSH to stimulate the thyroid to produce hormones, causing the thyroid to enlarge and form a goiter.

In addition, lack of iodine in nutritional nutrition, complications after hyperthyroidism treatment is also the cause of hypothyroidism.

Understand typical thyroid diseases

The typical symptoms of hypothyroidism are:

• Fatigue, distraction.

• Rapid weight gain.

• Get cold easily.

• Loss of appetite.

• Decreased libido.

• Have muscle aches.

• Hair loss, brittle nails …

Treatment for hypothyroidism is usually given to patients taking thyroid hormone drugs in varying doses from time to time until the time the thyroid hormone returns to normal.


When the thyroid gland overproduces thyroid hormones, an abnormally fast metabolism leads to hyperthyroidism.

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is often caused by Basedow's disease. The disease is more common in people from the age of 20 to 40 years, especially women.

In addition, after treatment for hypothyroidism, an excess of thyroid hormones can lead to hyperthyroidism. In addition, the hot nucleus can also cause the thyroid to overproduce hormones and cause disease.

The signs of hyperthyroidism patients should pay attention to are:

• Fatigue, distraction.

• Unexplained weight loss.

• Anxiety, easily trembling.

• Abnormally fast heart rate.

• Easily get hot in the body, sweat a lot.

• Your period changes.

• Increased bowel movements.

Thyroid treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism, physicians often prescribe anti-thyroid drugs aimed at reducing the number of thyroid hormones to a stable level, which may require a combination of beta-blockers to better control the heartbeat fast.

If this treatment method is not effective, the doctor will consider giving the patient a strong dose of radioactive iodine or surgery to treat the case.

Thyroid Nodule

A nucleated thyroid is a condition in which tumors form within the thyroid gland, also known as the nucleus.

When the patient has nuclear nephropathy, the doctor will prescribe the patient to have examination tests such as an ultrasound, a needle aspiration of thyroid cells, or possibly a biopsy to determine if it is a benign or malignant thyroid.

In the event that there are no cancerous nuclear cells, the doctor will prescribe a number of therapeutic drugs to the patient, to reduce the size of the thyroid nucleus or to require surgery to remove the thyroid nucleus.

But if the results show that there are cancer cells, the treatment will be based on the specific condition to come up with the appropriate regimen. If treated promptly, the rate of patients recovering well is very high.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is a malignancy related to the thyroid gland, accounting for only about 1% of current cancers.

For thyroid cancer, it will cause abnormalities on the patient's body with different degrees such as:

Thyroid cancer manifest like?

• Patient has an appetite but is still losing unexplained weight.

• The thyroid enlarges rapidly, with abnormal lymph nodes appearing around the neck area.

• Frequent perspiration, poor heat tolerance.

• Tired easily.

• Insomnia.

• Change in personality.

• Tired.

• Nervousness, difficulty breathing.

• Shaky hands and feet.

• Women have changes in the menstrual cycle.

Depending on the stage and type of cancer, the health of the patient … the doctor will offer the most effective regimen such as radiation therapy, surgery to remove the tumor …

Is thyroid disease dangerous? For thyroid cancer, patients should not be too confused, because the benignity of this disease compared to other cancers often has a better prognosis.

If detected in an early stage, the chance of cure is very high. To do this, the patient should follow the treatment instructions of the doctor throughout the treatment.

Benign Thyroid Tumors

A benign thyroid is the most common of all thyroid diseases. Because the disease develops silently, there are no obvious signs at first, so it is difficult to recognize.

The patient only discovers when the disease enters a more severe stage with manifestations such as an enlarged neck area, a tumor that compresses the neighboring organs with such manifestations as difficulty swallowing and prolonged cough, shortness of breath…

What are the types of benign thyroid tumors? 

Benign tumors are divided into the following categories:

• Uneven enlarged thyroid: The disease usually does not cause unusual symptoms, does not need treatment intervention but requires regular monitoring.

• The thyroid gland is evenly enlarged, painless: The disease affects the patient's health and causes loss of aesthetics. Treatment may be medication to shrink the gland or surgical removal of the gland, which is indicated depending on the specific case.

• The thyroid gland has only one position to be enlarged and rounded, the rest is normal: This is a case that requires periodic monitoring and needs to be tested when the doctor suspects to detect abnormal signs of disease for good handling and control.

Diagnosis of Thyroid Pathology

Because thyroid disease is difficult to detect at the beginning when there are no obvious symptoms, so to best protect your health, you should have regular thyroid and health screenings to promptly detect the disease.

How is thyroid disease diagnosed?

In the case, there are symptoms that you suspect of being infected, you should consult a specialist for the most accurate diagnosis and diagnosis. Thyroid tests help find the cause of thyroid problems, contribute to the enhanced diagnostic value and treatment regimens include:

• Blood tests.

• Thyroid scintigraphy.

• Thyroid ultrasound.

Thyroid imaging through thyroid scans

For thyroid scintigraphy, the patient will first be given a small amount of radioactive iodine isotope. Next, the doctor will use a special camera to help detect areas in the thyroid gland that absorb radioactive iodine.

Through this method, it will result in an increase or decrease in activity in the thyroid area. However, you cannot use this method for pregnant women.

Thus, the proactive way to proactively detect thyroid diseases is to need periodic physical exams and regular monitoring of disease symptoms. Depending on the severity and stage of the disease, there will be different effects on the body. Therefore, we should not be subjective, we need to find a specialist to get an accurate diagnosis.

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