Lupus usually causes clinical features with varying degrees of the patient. Sometimes because of the vague signs, easily confusing with other autoimmune diseases, it will make it difficult to recognize and diagnose.
The test for lupus erythematosus consists of many small tests that are currently used to bring high diagnostic value to this pathology. The following information will help you learn more about lupus erythematosus and diagnostic tests.
Learn About Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues and organs. To this day, it is not clear what causes lupus erythematosus.
When infected, it can affect any organ in the body such as skin, blood cells, joints, brain, heart … However, most cases usually affect the skin the most. , causing red, changeable body rashes. Once healed, the patches will cause scarring or lighter areas of skin that heal.
There are cases where, from birth there is a tendency to develop lupus erythematosus, which can be caused by an infection, using certain medications, or possibly from sunlight.
Lupus erythematosus is a chronic progressive disease, at present, there is no definitive treatment. The main treatment is to help patients control the disease well and limit the risk of complications. So, as soon as there are signs, the patient should go to the hospital to be examined, tested for lupus erythematosus, and treated early.
Can You Catch Lupus From Another Person?
Is lupus erythematosus contagious? Although there is no known exact cause, lupus can be caused by genetic factors or environmental interactions that cause autoimmune diseases. However, this is not an infectious disease, so the patient and those in close contact can be assured that the disease is not contagious to other subjects.
Lupus will progress if the body's immune system doesn't match and attacks typical tissues such as the skin, body, joints, heart, and lungs. When these organs are attacked, they damage and cause inflammation.
What Is Usually The First Sign Of Lupus?
Although the disease is not contagious, the severity of lupus erythematosus can increase with time and location. Do many patients wonder if lupus erythematosus is itchy?
The most prominent symptom of lupus erythematosus that most people experience is an itchy rash that comes from a rash. When the skin is red, it can cause a very uncomfortable itchy sensation.
In addition, lupus erythematosus is present in most organs because it is a systemic disease. Symptoms usually appear slowly over a period of time or may appear suddenly as follows:
Skin: The rash will appear red in color, most commonly on the face, wrists, and hands. In it, a prominent feature of lupus is the erythema shaped like a butterfly on the face. Most skin lesions will be very sensitive to sunlight.
If the disease gets worse, the lesions in the middle will shrink, or become blisters. If present in the oral mucosa, it is very easy to cause sores but not pain. At the same time, hair is weakened, yellowish and brittle.
Lungs: People with lupus erythematosus affecting the lungs can lead to symptoms of pleuritis, pneumonia, or also respiratory failure.
Heart: Diseases that affect the heart will have symptoms such as shortness of breath, pain in the chest, similar to myocarditis. There are cases, if not treated early, can cause very dangerous heart failure.
Joints: One of the most common manifestations of arthritis is arthritis, which causes pain in the joints and limited movement.
Blood: Patients with lupus erythematosus often experience anemia with varying degrees of severity depending on the case, making the skin pale, pale lips, easily dizzy, dizzy when exercising. Through the test can both red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets have a decreasing index.
Kidney: Lupus erythema can lead to nephritis, kidney failure with the typical signs of cloudy urine, bloody, swelling of the whole body, high blood pressure. Usually, patients will need to do urine tests, blood tests, and kidney biopsies to confirm the condition.
Psychiatry: In some cases, lupus can cause neurological effects that may cause disorientation, impaired memory, and decreased perception. Often causes severe headaches, convulsions, especially when patients have been taking steroids for a long time to treat the disease.
Early-stage lupus erythematosus: Causes mildly, the patient will feel like a tired person, beginning to experience some organ problems, especially in the joints, skin.
Full stage lupus erythematosus: Will cause a moderate impact, organs other than the skin, joints will begin to become inflamed such as lungs, kidneys, heart.
End-stage lupus erythematosus: This is the most severe, causing serious damage to most organs in the body such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, and will threaten the patient's life. if not treated promptly to prevent complications.
Diagnosis Of Lupus Scarlet Fever
Diagnosis of lupus erythematosus, through testing of lupus erythematosus, will help the doctor determine the severity of the disease and propose the most effective treatment regimen for each condition, helping to prevent complications and good disease control is as follows:
Antinuclear antibodies ANA
An antinuclear antibody is a type of antibody that is able to counteract the agent of cells, which is common in most people with lupus. The ANA test is used in the diagnosis of scarlet fever as a screening tool.
Thanks to the observation of antibody samples, the doctor can identify the specific disease that the patient has, thereby giving the most effective treatment for the patient.
However, there are still cases where ANA (+) antinuclear antibody results are but not necessarily the patient with lupus, but it may be caused by other diseases that have an autoimmune disorder. In order to confirm the diagnosis, a combination of other tests is required.
The ESR test is a test that measures the speed at which red blood cells travel down the lower part of a test tube. If the patient is inflamed, the blood proteins tend to stick together, and the rate falls faster than normal.
When observing this phenomenon, one can recognize the severity of inflammation when blood deposition faster means more severe inflammation.
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a test performed as a marker for inflammation, indicating active lupus erythematosus. The test is also indicated to monitor disease changes, inflammation, and response during treatment phases.
There are some cases where even non-lupus erythematosus can give a positive result, which is a limitation of the ESR test. The test is not usually used to differentiate lupus that occurs as a result of an infection.
C-reactive protein (CRP)
CRP is a protein that can warn inflammatory markers. The C-reactive protein analysis of blood test detects active lupus, monitoring disease progression and inflammation.
Some causes, such as an infection, can also cause a high CRP result, indistinguishable from a lupus erythematosus caused by an infection.
Anti- Ro (SSA) and Anti-La (SSB)
Anti-Ro (SSA) and anti-La (SSB) have specific properties against ribonucleic acid (RNA) proteins, so they are often of high value in diagnosing autoimmune diseases, specifically:
Ro antibody (SSA): Usually present, accounting for 24-60% of patients with lupus erythematosus and 70% of cases of Sjögren autoimmune disorder.
Anti-La (SSB): Usually accounts for about 35% of people with Sjögren's syndrome.
Both of these antibodies may be associated with neonatal lupus syndrome if, in the case of detection of antibodies in a pregnant woman, it is necessary to monitor the fetus.
The test can also be negative even though the patient has lupus erythematosus, so it is often not used alone but in combination with other tests.
The dsDNA antibody is a protein that directly fights double-stranded DNA. Up to 70 – 90% of patients with lupus erythematosus give positive dsDNA results. This is a highly specific diagnostic test.
When the level of this antibody increases, the disease progresses. In addition, it is likely to show a high risk of lupus nephritis, which requires monitoring of the kidney condition.
Test for other lupus erythematosus
In addition, other lupus erythematosus tests that are used today are:
- Anti-Sm test: Sm is present in about 30% of people with lupus erythematosus.
- Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLs): Present in 60% of people with lupus erythematosus.
- Complement: For people with a disease often have a low level of complement protein (complement).
- Complete blood count (CBC): Usually found in about 50% of people with lupus erythematosus.
- Chemical tests: Often used to assess liver and kidney function.
- Glomerular filtration rate: Used to diagnose when kidney function is suspected.
- Lupus urine test: To evaluate the effects of lupus on the kidneys.
Treatment Of Lupus Scarlet Fever
Can lupus erythematosus be cured? Lupus is not curable. However, to prevent complications, patients need treatment to control the condition. Depending on the degree, the doctor will have different treatments such as solving problems related to internal organs affected by the disease.
The patient does not prevent these pathogens by noticing problems other than the following combination of treatment:
- Limit exposure to the sun for too long, so be protective measures such as wearing thick clothes, applying sunscreen.
- When using the drug should consult a doctor because it can cause irritation, more sensitivity when exposed to the sun.
- Should keep the spirit at ease, avoid excessive stress.
- Should limit contact with people suffering from infections, colds.
- Make sure you get enough sleep each day.
Lupus erythematosus is a recognizable disease that is often difficult to distinguish, causing confusion, so to determine correctly it is necessary to go through the lupus erythematosus test to help determine the severity of the disease and have control treatment. well control the disease, avoid complications dangerous to health.
For more information about checkup packages and direct billing services for corporations with health insurance, please click here.
The site cannot and does not contain medical advice. The medical information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information. We encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals.