Urine tests are ordered by the doctor in cases of suspected patients with disorders such as urinary tract infections, diabetes mellitus, and kidney function diseases. Thanks to the analysis of substances present in the urine when conducting the test, it will help check for abnormal signs and find the cause of the disease, to support an effective treatment process.
What Is A Urine Test?
Urine testing is the modern medical method used to diagnose medical conditions. The most commonly used urine test method is urine analysis (UA). Other tests are also urine culture and urine electrolyte concentrations.
After the test sample is available, doctors will conduct an analysis to find the target parameters by visual inspection to analyze the color, odor, and substances in the urine in an overview. Next is using an implant to analyze and observe urine samples by light microscopy.
Urine Test Procedures
Before conducting the urine test, the patient can eat and drink normally. However, if you combine multiple tests at once there are tests that require fasting. You should consult your doctor for more detailed instructions.
It is important to inform your doctor about the medications and supplements you are taking, as many ingredients in the drug may interfere with the test results.
A urine test is done by taking a urine sample from a patient. Depending on the patient's situation, urine samples may be collected at home or hospital.
The most commonly used urine sampling method is the "mid-stream" urine sampling method.
Some special cases will be performed in the hospital and urine collection by a urinary catheterization method or needle aspiration on the pubic bone to enter the bladder.
The urine sample will then be tested, analyzed for different substances and components in the urine. Thanks to the test, it will help to find the cause and signs of the disease, improve the effectiveness of treatment.
Conditions Discovered By A Urine Test
The human urinary excretion system includes organs such as the kidneys, bladder, urethra, and ureter. To balance water in the body, filter and remove residue, other toxic substances excreted in the urine require the involvement of the urinary excretion system.
Usually, the urine is clear or pale yellow. But when the body has a problem related to the urinary system, we can recognize abnormalities through the color of the urine that can be darker than usual, the smell is strong and bad.
When urinating a feeling of burning, burning but often sad, you need to go to the hospital to check and do a urine test to find out the cause of the phenomenon.
A urine test can detect conditions such as:
Urinary tract infection: When a urine sample is tested and analyzed, if white blood cells and bacterial compounds are found, it means that you have a urinary tract infection.
Kidney disease: When the urine shows abnormal signs related to proteins, acids, red blood cells …, it is possible that the patient may have kidney-related diseases such as pyelonephritis, kidney stones, worse than kidney failure …
The detection of early signs of kidney disease is very important in the treatment of avoiding dangerous complications. Because the kidneys are the organ with the function of filtering blood, affecting the whole life activities of the body.
Diabetes: Thanks to the results of indicators such as pH, Ketones urine tests will help doctors determine the possibility of patients having diabetes or not.
Liver disease: Urine tests not only detect kidney disease but also help diagnose liver diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatitis … thanks to UBG and BIL in the urine.
Diseases related to genital organs: Gonorrhea and syphilis are one of the most common diseases but have a serious impact on the health of the patient. Through urine test will help detect genital diseases in the incubation stage for timely treatment.
Meaning of Urine Test Indicators
Many people realize the importance of a urine test to detect timely medical conditions. But confused about understanding urine test results like? Because the indicators in the urine test belong to the medical specialization not everyone can grasp them.
LEU – The white blood cell index
Based on the presence of granulocyte esterase enzyme, LEU will be known in the urine sample. Because the body fights against the invading bacteria, white blood cells die and are eliminated through the urinary tract. This index also indicates the likelihood of a patient with a urinary tract infection.
Normal LEU rating: 10-25 Leu / UL
Negative results: When LEU <25 Leu / UL. This result shows that the white blood cells in the body do not show any abnormalities. However, if the patient still develops other clinical symptoms, they will have to do more tests to check.
Positive results: When the LEU score> 25 leu / UL, it means that the white blood cells have abnormal signs, reflecting urinary tract infection, bladder infection. When this happens, an intensive examination will be conducted and treatment will be initiated immediately.
Nitrite Index (NIT)
Normally, there will be no nitrate in the urine. Nitrite occurs only when bacteria metabolize food. To measure the Nitrite index in the urine requires the urine collection procedure to take enough time for nitrate to convert to nitrite. Usually, when the urine has been in the bladder for 4 hours, a sample can be collected.
Nitrite index is normal at: 0.05-0.1 mg / dL.
Negative results: When the Nitrite index <0.05 mg / dL, it means that there are no gram-negative bacteria in the urine, leading to a negative result. But there are also many cases of false-negative results when the urine sample time is too short or the presence of gram-positive bacteria.
Positive results: Nitrite index> 0.1 mg / dL will give a positive result. Thus, it proves that the patient has a urinary tract infection that should be diagnosed, made additional tests, and treated early.
Thanks to the results of the pH reading from the urine test, this urine sample will be evaluated as acidic or basic as follows:
• pH = 4 means that the urine sample is very acidic.
• pH = 7 means that the urine sample is neutral.
• pH = 9 means that the urine sample is strongly basic.
When the pH increases, kidney infections will change abnormally. Conditions such as dehydrated diarrhea, chronic kidney failure, vomiting, pyloric stenosis, decreased when diabetic ketoacidosis.
Thanks to Bilirubin index analysis, helps to detect the risk of liver disease or diseases caused by the biliary system.
Bilirubin is normal at: 0.4-0.8 mg / dL or 6.8-13.6 mmol / L.
Negative result: If the result is negative, nothing abnormal is happening. At this point, the patient does not need to undergo further tests. However, false-negative results sometimes appear in cases where urine is left too long.
Positive result: If the result is positive, doctors will order more urobilinogen tests to make a more accurate diagnosis. It is also not excluded that in some cases there are factors leading to false-positive results.
Red blood cells (BLO)
If red blood cells are present in the urine sample, the patient is at risk for kidney disease or urinary tract infection.
Negative result: This Shows that everything is normal. But if the doctor finds that the patient is still in the high-risk group, he or she will order a repeat of the test for further examination.
Positive result: If there is a positive result, other combination tests are needed to get an accurate diagnosis. For patients over 40 years old, if a positive result persists, the risk of urinary tract cancer is very high.
Glucose (GLU – Sugar)
If glucose appears in the tested urine sample, this is a sign of diabetes. Or due to kidney tubular diseases, pancreatitis … cause.
Negative result: This indicates no presence of glucose in the urine. Or if there is only at a very low level. It is normal for pregnant women to have acceptable levels of glucose in the urine.
Positive results: When a positive result shows that the patient may have some diseases such as uncontrolled diabetes, kidney damage … If before the test, the patient eats too many sweets. may lead to a positive result. But when the second test, the glucose index is higher than the first, this is a worrying sign.
ASC (Urine Residue Screen)
Urinalysis is a method of evaluating kidney diseases, detecting urinary tract stones, urinary tract infections, or kidney infections.
Normal ASC reading is at: 5-10 mg / dL or 0.28-0.56 mmol / L.
Whether the result is negative or positive, when receiving the result, the patient should consult a doctor about his case to know exactly whether further tests are needed to re-test and proceed. administering treatment or not.
A urine test is a common test that has no definitive meaning but helps doctors diagnose the basis of conducting some other tests and methods. From there, giving the most accurate results about the patient's condition.
Understanding the test scores will make it easier for the patient to read the results. However, it is necessary to consult a doctor to further evaluate the condition and to have appropriate and timely treatment.
The site cannot and does not contain medical advice. The medical information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals.