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What Tests Are Done In Endocrinology? How To Read A Dial Test Indicator?

The endocrine test is becoming more and more popular for both men and women. Through the LH index, Prolactin index, AMH index, FSH index, Estrogen, etc.  Doctors will know what fertility problems the patient is having. From there, provide timely treatment, reducing the current risk of infertility. The following article will help you with endocrine testing as well as find out why you have to have an endocrine test?

What Is Endocrine Test?

Hormone testing is a test that helps to evaluate reproductive health in both men and women.

For women, when hormone testing will know the ability to store ovum as well as activity in the ovaries. From there, knowing whether the patient has endocrine disorders, reproductive function, infertility risk or not to have appropriate treatment.

Hormone testing is a test that helps to evaluate reproductive health in both men and women

For men, the endocrine test method helps to detect the abnormal increase and decrease of 4 main substances: Testosterone, FSH, LH, and Androgen. These are substances that play an important role in regulating and ensuring the functioning of the hypothalamus, pituitary – testes, and normal spermatogenesis. If these substances have abnormal indicators, it is a warning sign of spermatogenesis disorder, poor conception in men.

What Tests Are Done In Endocrinology? How To Read A Dial Test Indicator?

Male and female hormone testing includes many different types of tests.

Men’s endocrine test

To assess reproductive health in men, doctors will rely on the index of 4 types of tests below:

1. Testosterone Test Index

The testosterone test is an important test to check reproductive health in men. Usually, doctors will perform a testosterone test in the morning when these hormone levels are highest.

  • Normal testosterone levels are in the range of 300-1000 ng/dl.
  • Testosterone levels decrease compared to normal, making men tired, decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction, decreased energy, risk of infertility, …

Note: In order for the amount of Testosterone in the blood to be unaffected, the patient should stop taking certain medications or inform the doctor before the test.

2. FSH test index

If a man has no sperm or has an unexplained sperm problem, an FSH test is indicated. This test is useful in differentiating hypogonadism with or without hypothalamic from hypothalamic.

The FSH test is usually ordered if a man has no sperm or has unexplained sperm failure
  • Normal FSH levels range from 2 to 12 mIU/ml.
  • If the FSH is lower than normal, it is a sign of disease related to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.

If the FSH index is higher than normal, it means that the testicles are not responding well to the stimulation that the gonadotropin hormone produces. Damage to the spermatogenesis process leads to the testicles not producing sperm.

There are still cases where the FSH test is normal because the spermatogenesis process is stopped, there is no mature sperm.

3. Estradiol Index

The Estradiol test score is useful in evaluating problems related to puberty in boys and girls.

The Estradiol test is useful in evaluating problems related to puberty in boys and girls
  • Normal estradiol levels in men range from 28 to 156 pmol/l.
  • If the estradiol index increases more than normal, it indicates that the child has signs of early puberty or erectile dysfunction, a gynecomastia in men.
  • Conversely, if Estradiol is low, the child may have delayed puberty or hypogonadism.

4. Prolactin Index

Based on the Prolactin test index combined with other test indicators to help diagnose the cause of infertility, erectile dysfunction, a gynecomastia in men.

  • Prolactin index is normal in the range of 2 – 18 ng/ml (this concentration may change at different times and stages)
  • High Prolactin: It can be a sign of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, gynecomastia, hypothyroidism, etc.
  • Low Prolactin index when sperm is weak, low sperm count, reduced sexual function, etc.

Women’s Endocrine Test

Hormones play an important role in women. Female hormone testing is recommended to be performed periodically about 1-2 times/year to check reproductive health. Especially for women with menstrual disorders, difficulty getting pregnant, etc., regular testing is a must.

To assess a woman's reproductive health, doctors will rely on the index of 7 types of tests below.

To assess the reproductive health of women, it is often based on the index of 7 types of tests including:
Estrogen, Prolactin, AMH, FSH, LH, Progesterone, Testosterone

1. Estrogen Test Index

The estrogen hormone in women helps regulate physical characteristics such as skin, body curves, voice, menstrual cycle, …

There are three different forms of estrogen in women, but Estradiol (or E2) is the most common.

  • Estradiol levels are normal if it is between 70 – 220 pmol/L or 20 – 60 pg/mL.

2. Prolactin Index

Prolactin test numbers help doctors know fertility in women. Because they play a role in triggering ovulation, ensuring eggs form and mature.

  • Prolactin levels are normal in the range of 127 – 637 μU/mL.
  • If the prolactin index is high, it will lead to the risk of infertility due to an ovulatory disorder.

3. AMH Index

The hormone AMH is produced by cells in the follicle. They affect the ovaries' ability to store and supply eggs.

  • AMH is normal in the range of 2 – 6.8 ng/ml
  • Too high AMH: increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation, which can lead to infertility.
  • Too low AMH: the ability to respond to drugs is reduced with IVF.

4. FSH Index

The FSH test is often indicated in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome in women.

  • Normal FSH levels range from 1.4 to 9.6 IU/L.
  • If this index is higher than normal, it shows that the reserve capacity of the ovaries is low.

5. LH Index

The hormone LH is one of the most important hormones in the reproductive process.

  • Normal LH test readings range from 0.8 to 26 IU/L.
  • If the LH index is abnormal, it will affect ovulation, menstrual disorders, increase the risk of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, …

6. Progesterone Index

Progesterone is effective in stimulating the growth of the uterine lining and mammary glands.

  • In normal women, the Progesterone test should only be in the range of 5-20 ng/mL.
  • If this index is elevated in normal women, it can lead to feelings of chest tightness, decreased libido, menstrual disorders, body weakness, depression, etc.
  • Particularly for pregnant women, progesterone needs to be increased to protect the fetus.

7. Testosterone Index

There is still a small amount of testosterone hormone in the female body. This hormone in the body has the effect of stimulating sexual desire.

  • Testosterone levels in women are normally in the range of 15 – 70mg/dL.
  • If testosterone levels are high in women, it could be a sign of polycystic ovarian disease or a rare tumor.

When Should I See An Endocrinologist?

For women

Doctors recommend that women of reproductive age have a female hormone test about 1-2 times a year. That helps monitor reproductive health as well as to detect early signs of abnormalities in the body if any.

Females of reproductive age should have regular female hormone tests about 1-2 times/year

In addition, some subjects should have early hormone testing such as:

  • Women with menstrual disorders.
  • Women who do not have a period (primary amenorrhea) or have missed periods for more than 3 months (secondary amenorrhea) need to get tested soon.
  • Women gain a lot of weight uncontrollably.
  • Frequent hair loss, sweating.
  • Women over 35 years old.
  • Suspected polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • People preparing for IVF or using assisted reproductive methods.

For men

Endocrine tests in men do not need to be performed as often as in women. However, in the following cases, you need to take the test as soon as possible.

  • Men are infertile to have children.
  • People with physiological weakness, unstable sperm.
  • A person without sperm (infertility).
  • Tired body, decreased desire
  • Abnormal erection,…
  • People preparing for IVF or using assisted reproductive methods.
Endocrine testing in men is also necessary for protecting male reproductive health

Endocrine testing plays an important role in protecting reproductive health in both men and women. The choice of endocrinology test also greatly affects the diagnostic results. Choose high-quality specialized medical facilities to ensure the fastest testing process and the most accurate results.

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The site cannot and does not contain medical advice. The medical information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information. We encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals.