Cancer marker test is a modern medical method, commonly used for the purpose of detecting cancer in an early stage. Since then, there is a timely treatment regimen. Because we all know cancer is a malignant disease, when it develops in a late-stage, it is very difficult to treat and seriously affects the health and life of the patient.
What Is The Markup Of Cancer?
As defined by the American Cancer Society, tumor markers also known as tumor markers (Tumor markers) are produced by cancer cells or can also be produced by other cells in the body. These are manufactured in response to cancer or some other benign illness.
Cancer markers are still being produced for the average person, but at very low concentrations in normal tissues.
In the case of real cancer, tumor marker markers are produced by the cells, but the number will be many times higher than normal. Thanks to that, through the blood test it is possible to distinguish benign and malignant tumors.
Cancer markers can be detected through tests from a patient's blood, urine, stool, or body fluids. Some tumor markers are specific to only one type of cancer. However, in other types of cancer, some tumor markers tend to increase quite high.
There are some cases where, although the amount of tumor markers increases, it is not cancer. This test result is called a false positive for some typical diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, benign breast disease …
In order to diagnose cancer, it is necessary to combine cancer marker tests, diagnostic examinations with other specialized tests to have accurate results.
Therefore, when the results of different types of tumor marker tests are available, the patient should consult a doctor to understand the meaning of the indicators most accurately. Avoid the confusion that when your index increases, you think you have cancer, not because of other diseases.
Is Cancer Marker Test Correct?
Cancer marker test has the meaning of helping doctors diagnose the risk of cancer but cannot confirm the exact nature of cancer. Cancer marker tests are often ordered by a doctor when he suspects a patient has cancer.
Test results can also be influenced by objective factors that lead to false negatives or false positives. Depending on the patient's condition, doctors will advise whether to do additional tests to check or not.
To know exactly if you have cancer or not, you should have a second cancer marker test about 3 – 6 months after the first test. Through evaluating the results and comparing them with the results for the first time, if the index increases suddenly, you will have to check the combination to find the cause of the disease.
Cancer marker tests cannot confirm 100% accuracy, but when combined with other types of tests, CT imaging will have a higher rate of accuracy. If you suspect that you have cancer, you should go to the hospital for counseling to check and screen for cancer markers to get the most accurate diagnosis.
Should Cancer Screening?
Cancer screening is a modern scientific method, whereby people can proactively detect diseases early and protect their health in the best way.
The earlier the screening for markers of cancer, the better the health benefits of each person. We should screen cancer periodically 6 months, 1 year, 2 years … To detect abnormal signs on the body as soon as there are no clear symptoms to treat promptly.
Not only should be periodically screened for cancer but when the body shows abnormal signs or suspects that cancer should be seen by a specialist immediately to be screened for cancer and do screening tests.
Genetic factors (In the family if there is a member with cancer), the elderly, who regularly use stimulants … Are the subjects with a higher risk of cancer than normal people. need early cancer screening.
Cancer Markers Used Today
• CEA is a component of the mucous membrane of the rectum.
• Normal CEA limit when fluctuating between 0 – 10 ng/mg.
• CEA usually increases in K in the gastrointestinal tract such as K esophagus, stomach, colorectal, cervix, ovary, breast …
• CEA may increase but not significantly when a patient has pancreatitis, colonic polyps, chronic kidney failure, or inflammation of the small intestine.
• AFP is known as a type of plasma in the primary liver K cells and K germ cells (testes).
• Normal AFP limit when fluctuating between 0 – 7ng / ml.
• Through the AFP index to help doctors monitor the disease status and whether the treatment of primary liver cell K or germ cell K after surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation is effective or not.
• When a patient has hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver plasma AFP index will increase.
• The normal PSA limit fluctuates within:
People under 50 years: PSA <2.5 ng / ml.
People over 50 years: PSA <5 ng / ml.
• The plasma PSA may increase when a patient has an enlarged tumor, inflammation of the prostate or prostate K.
• Thanks to the PSA test result, it helps to screen for prostate K and simultaneously combine with biopsy, rectal scan. Usually applied to male patients over 50 years old.
• CA 125 is known as a type of plasma. CA 125 usually increases in the K ovary, K in the cervix. For patients with serious diseases such as peritonitis, pericarditis, and pleurisy, CA 125 also tended to increase.
• Limit CA 125 normally when fluctuating in the range: 0 – 35U / ml.
• CA 125 is valuable in diagnosing ovarian K, monitoring the effectiveness of treatment progress.
• CA 15-3 is the plasma form, usually increased in K breasts, can also increase when the patient has benign breast tumors, hepatitis, pancreatitis.
• Normal CA 13-5 limit fluctuates between 0 – 30U / ml.
• Thanks to a CA 13-5 score of follow-up value for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
• A higher concentration of CA 13-5 means a greater risk of breast cancer.
• This test also has drawbacks because the sensitivity is not high, so it is not suitable for diagnosis when breast cancer has not metastasized.
• CA 72-4 is the type of plasma that usually increases in gastric K. For pancreatitis, pneumonia, cirrhosis, and rheumatism CA 72-4 may also increase.
• The CA 72-4 limit is normal when it fluctuates in the range of 0 – 5.4U / ml.
• CA 72-4 index is valuable in monitoring effective treatment of gastric K or not.
• CA 19-9 is a type of plasma that increases in K in the gastrointestinal tract such as the pancreas, biliary tract, colorectal, and stomach.
• The CA 19-9 limit is normal when it ranges: 0 – 33U / ml.
• For patients with hepatitis, cirrhosis, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, or biliary obstruction, the CA 19-9 score may also increase.
• Through the CA 19-9 index is significant in early detection for the treatment of K diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, it also helps to monitor the effective treatment process when the gastrointestinal K disease recurs.
• Normal SCC limit when fluctuating in the range: 0- 3 µg / L.
• With a blocked lung, asthma can also increase the SCC.
• SCC index is valuable in monitoring and evaluating disease progression as well as an effective treatment of cervical K, primary and secondary esophageal K.
• Because of its low sensitivity and specificity, SCC is generally not used for the purpose of screening for squamous cell carcinoma.
What Are The Limitations Of Cancer Markers?
Cancer markers are of great significance in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, but there are some limitations such as:
• In many cases, tumor markers may increase even when the patient does not have cancer, due to the influence of other diseases in the body that lead to erroneous test results.
• Some tumor markers alone have no value in diagnosing cancer.
• Not all cases of cancer patients who have cancer marker tests have an increase in indexes.
How Are Cancer Markers Used?
Cancer markers, although not used to confirm a diagnosis, provide many useful values that are often used to:
• Screening for people at high risk of cancer.
• Helps diagnose and detect tumors in the body. Besides, it also helps to distinguish from non-cancerous diseases but has similar symptoms.
• Help diagnose the stage of cancer.
• Decide the prognosis.
• Track the results of treatment and detect recurrence.
Hopefully, useful information related to tumor markers will help people better understand what tumor markers are and the important meaning of tumor markers in combining diagnosis to detect cancer in an early stage, making treatment more effective.
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The site cannot and does not contain medical advice. The medical information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals.