Many people not only wonder what microbiological tests are for? What tests are included? Don't even understand what a microbiological test is?
Actually, this is a very important test to help find the cause of the disease. Applied to cases diagnosed with an infectious disease. From there, it will help improve the effectiveness of treatment to help patients recover quickly.
How Do Microorganisms Affect Human Health?
The microorganism is a common name that includes viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and algae. Microorganisms can be single-celled, multicellular, prokaryotic, or eukaryotic. Very small in size, usually viewed under a microscope. Microorganisms have many types, grow and develop very strongly. Microorganisms have two types: beneficial microorganisms and harmful microorganisms.
Microorganisms exist in the human body, can be short-term or permanent depending on the type. The outstanding harmful microorganisms such as bacteria will attack people through their toxins. Causes swelling, pus-filled swelling, wound infection …
When the body becomes infected with microorganisms, it causes damage locally or widely. Some common diseases such as hepatitis B, skin infection, respiratory tract infection … To combat this penetration, it is necessary to take antibiotics and receive treatment from a doctor.
For some mild infections like inflammatory bumps, many people often self-medicate. However, not all self-administered drugs can treat the correct cause, making the condition worse.
What Is A Microbiological Test?
Before understanding what microbiological testing is for, we need to understand the concept of microbiological testing to have a specific view and better understand microbiological testing.
A microbiological test is a type of test through diagnosis and analysis of microbiological images obtained on samples. These results will help doctors to find the cause of the disease in the patient's body, to diagnose and propose the most effective treatment.
Samples of the patient collected on the patient or the environment where the infected person is suspected of being the cause of the disease. This specimen contains harmful microorganisms that will be subject to microbiological testing.
Usually, the specimens of microbiological tests include: specimens taken from skin infections such as pus, lesions not exceeding the dermis, urine, cerebrospinal fluid … deep pus includes lesions. Deep wound located below the dermis layer, body fluids such as nasal fluid, pleural fluid, blood, feces …
The scope of application of microbiological testing not only stops in epidemiological diagnosis and treatment but is also very diverse, it is also applied in scientific research, teaching, and legal.
What Is The Purpose Of Microbiological Testing?
Currently, in our country, infection is a disease with a very high incidence, second only to dangerous diseases such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular … Infections are diverse, there are various types of infections. Common on the human body such as respiratory tract infection, digestive tract infection, blood infection, skin infection …
There are many causes of infection, but many people are very subjective to taking antibiotics without going to the hospital to check. Using the wrong medicine can make the disease not go away, but it tends to increase the difficulty of treatment later.
Arbitrary use of antibiotics can lead to resistance. In fact, we all have at least one infection in our life. And Vietnam is a country that must use the last generation of antibiotics because the resistance of the drug in our country is at an alarming rate. This leads to many consequences for the patient himself and the society.
Microbiological testing for? To find out the cause of the disease need to conduct microbiological tests. From there, help early detection and timely treatment by using the right antibiotics. This is extremely important to destroy the cause of the disease completely.
What Types Of Microbiological Tests Are?
Microbiological testing includes 4 types, results based on testing methods as follows:
• Direct screening test
• Molecular biology test
• Culture tests
Values Of Microbiological Tests
Process of internal examination for microbiological testing including diagnosis of disease, general examination of the disease status of medicines the patient is using … Next is to take samples of patient.
Presently, samples can be taken at hospitals where patients visit or at home and then sent to hospitals and testing centers. From the samples collected, doctors will use different types of tests to find the cause of the disease. From there, get the results of diagnosis and treatment in the next steps.
Direct microscopy test
Although there are 4 types of microbiological tests, direct microscopy will be the first step in the foundation, on which doctors will choose to conduct the next steps of testing to find the exact cause of the disease and save time.
Thus, in many cases, direct screening tests only as a basis for orientation do not have immediate decisive diagnostic value. Except for some cases of detecting tuberculosis bacteria, yeast in uterine fluid, gonorrhea bacteria … the direct screening test is considered to have a high diagnostic value.
When performing direct microscopy, there are many different options such as microscopic microbiology under electron microscopy, fresh microscopy when microorganisms are alive, when microorganisms are dead, they will pass through dyes. The values of the direct microscopic microbiological test are:
Pap smear test
Helps doctors detect living, mobile organisms. This test has a high diagnostic value for the amoeba, bacteriophage, and cholera comma. Not only that but also used to diagnose mycelium, fungal spores or larvae, eggs of parasites.
Microbiological examination under an electron microscope: Through an electron microscope, doctors can see microorganisms with microscopic size, or the structure of microorganisms that are difficult to see. seen by other methods. However, this method is often used in research.
Microbiological dye: We Will have to use different specialized dyes on microorganisms and then observed them through the optical microscope. This method applies to the most common microorganisms. Because microorganisms are dead and fixed in place, doctors can carefully examine their shape, structure, and color-catching properties.
Culture test (Culture, Isolation)
Through culture in the artificial medium, the doctor will detect the presence of microorganisms in the sample. The identification of microorganisms will know whether they are capable of causing disease in the sampled human body.
Culture tests are often used to diagnose infections due to their high specificity. However, modern equipment is needed and strict patient sampling procedures are followed.
External effects such as the patient's medication use may also affect the sensitivity of the patient sample.
This test cannot diagnose microorganisms that cannot survive and thrive in artificial culture. In addition, the patient's specimens may be changed according to the progression of different stages of the disease.
Immunoassays help to identify the type of microorganism and obtain evidence of the infection. Specific antibodies, an infected individual, or a specific antigen of a microorganism are the subject of this test.
This method has many advantages such as Time for fast results, high sensitivity, diagnosis of microorganisms in patient samples with little or no existence … However, there are also limitations of little value to microorganisms that have not yet found a specific antigen.
Molecular biology test
Molecular biology tests help detect the etiology and traits of microorganisms, the level of infection and high sensitivity … Besides, there are also some disadvantages such as the need for modern equipment and fee is quite high, the traits have not been found yet …
Important Notes Before Taking A Microbiological Test
Before conducting microbiological tests, patients need to pay attention to a number of important issues to avoid affecting test results, helping doctors to diagnose the most accurate as follows:
• When doctors announce that blood samples will be collected for testing, patients should fast at least 12 hours before taking the sample. But there are also some types of blood tests that do not require a fast. So, you should consult your doctor on this to get more information about your case.
• Tests that require samples of urine and feces require the careful preparation of patient sample containers. The patient should clean the genital area with tap water. Avoid douching too deeply, causing damage and inflammation. Besides, do not use detergents with acid or alkaline ingredients.
• Before taking samples for testing, patients should rest properly, act gently, and keep comfortable.
• Absolutely do not exercise vigorously or exercise excessively for 24 hours prior to sampling.
• Avoid substance use prior to the day of collection. Inform your doctor about any medications or supplements you are taking.
• If samples are collected at home and sent for testing, they should be kept at room temperature for 1 hour. And quickly send it out as soon as possible.
Thus, we have also understood the importance of microbiological testing for what. When infected, the wounds are swollen and abnormal, we should not be subjective to self-medication.
Thorough examination and diagnosis in the hospital and microbiological tests to help find the cause of the disease to have an accurate treatment, to avoid causing dangerous complications for health.
The site cannot and does not contain medical advice. The medical information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals.