Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are two uncommon diseases, according to many studies, the incidence of thyroid-related diseases in women is 4 times higher than that of men. Many people still do not know they have hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism because the symptoms are often very vague and difficult to recognize. So what is the difference between hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, what are the causes, what causes the dangers of its complications, and how to treat it? This article will give you complete information about this disease.
What Is The Thyroid Gland?
The thyroid is located in the front of the neck, has a butterfly shape, weighs about 20-25 grams, most people pay little attention to it, but it is an important endocrine gland that affects metabolic activities. The thyroid gland consists of the left lobe connected to the right lobe through the strait. The thyroid is responsible for secreting hormones to maintain normal metabolic activity. Thyroid-related diseases, if not treated promptly, can cause dangerous complications.
Hyperthyroidism Vs. Hypothyroidism: What’s the Difference?
1. The Same
This is caused by the hormone secretion changes in the thyroid gland that are higher or lower than the standard level, causing abnormalities in the patient's body. Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism have the same symptoms, such as an abnormally enlarged neck, easily tired, decreased libido.
2. The Difference
Although hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are two diseases that originate from the thyroid gland, to compare the difference between hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, the most obvious manifestation is that it causes opposite effects on the patient's body.
Changes In Hormone Levels
A deficiency of hormones causes the thyroid gland to function less effectively, and metabolic conditions in the body slow down, leading to hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when too much-secreted thyroid hormone causes metabolism so fast that the body cannot adapt.
To identify patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism by measuring hormone levels in the blood, doctors will have accurate conclusions.
Causes of hypothyroidism
Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disease that causes a disorder when the body makes antibodies but destroys the thyroid gland, with thyroiditis being the two most common causes of hypothyroidism.
In addition, the genetic factor, the daily diet of iodine deficiency is severe and prolonged, the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine in some cases will destroy the thyroid cells. forever is also the cause of hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism
- Fatigue: The whole person loses energy, often tired, lethargic, often accompanied by forgetfulness.
- Loss of appetite: Poor appetite, often skipping meals, but abnormal weight gain
- Dry flaky skin, dry hair, lose its shine, easily break nails
- Gastrointestinal disturbances, constipation
- Being stressed, falling into depression
- For women who often experience menstrual problems, reduced blood volume, loss of interest in sex
- Frequent cramps, pain in the joints, muscles
- The area in the front of the neck is swollen
- Patients who are severely impaired will experience more serious symptoms such as swelling of the whole body, abnormally enlarged tongue, dry skin, dark color.
If not treated in time, it will lead to serious hypothyroidism complications: causing osteoporosis, weak bones easily fracture. Causes heart problems such as heart palpitations, congestive heart failure, not enough blood for the living activities of the body. Affecting vision, eyes are often swollen, red, blurred, glare.
The most dangerous is the presence of hyperthyroidism contractions that cause the heart to beat fast, have a high fever, or even delirium, if this is the case, it is necessary to bring the disease to an emergency promptly if there is no very high risk of death.
Causes of hyperthyroidism
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease, also known as Basedow, that is the main cause of hyperthyroidism. According to professional research, up to 70-80% of people with hyperthyroidism suffer from Graves.
Hyperthyroidism is not contagious, can be hereditary, some other less common causes but also lead to diseases such as Thyroiditis, toxic adenoma, more severe pituitary adenoma. Some habits of eating too salty, foods containing a lot of iodine for a long time, overuse of synthetic thyroid hormones also cause hyperthyroidism.
With hyperthyroidism, the patient will experience the following symptoms
- Rapid heartbeat: Exceeding the normal threshold, over 100 beats/minute. Feeling a thud in the chest, making the patient nervous and difficult to breathe
- Weight loss: Although the patient feels very normal eating, even appetite, the weight loss for unknown reasons.
- Stress, fatigue: The whole person is tired, always in a state of anxiety, stress, difficulty concentrating, poor physical condition, inactivity.
- Pain in the joints and muscles: This is the most obvious manifestation, accompanied by sweating, often shaking hands that are difficult to control.
- Some other abnormalities such as digestive disturbances, abnormal cholesterol levels, swollen neck, hoarse voice …
Complications of Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism, if not treated in time, will also lead to dangerous complications for patients such as heart palpitations, heart rhythm disturbances, and worse heart failure. Eyes are swollen, easily watery, eyes become extremely sensitive to light, causing inflammation and corneal damage.
These manifestations are also known as malignant bulges. Thyroid storm is the most serious complication caused by hyperthyroidism when the hormone suddenly increases and threatens the patient's life.
Hyperthyroidism Changes to Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are not uncommon. The cause of this phenomenon is that when the patients go-to treatment for hyperthyroidism, they will have to use anti-thyroid drugs, in more severe cases, thyroidectomy will be performed, radioactive iodine is used to treat the disease.
After a long period of using antithyroid drugs to inhibit the production of thyroid hormones at high doses, many cases of hypothyroidism occur after Basedow treatment.
To limit this phenomenon, it is necessary to have a highly qualified doctor with experience in examining and giving treatment with the appropriate amount of medicine for each patient and the stage of the disease. In addition, it is necessary to coordinate the patient's own follow-up visit on schedule to have the reduction of the drug according to the progression of the disease to avoid hypothyroidism from switching to hyperthyroidism.
However, do not worry too much, the notification of the disease status and the adjustment of the appropriate dose in combination with other medications will make the hypothyroidism decrease, and over time the thyroid will recover completely.
Treatment of Hypothyroidism
Hormonal drugs completely replace the hormone that the thyroid is no longer able to make. Usually, this drug is recommended by doctors in the morning before eating for the best effect. During the treatment process, divided into different stages, based on the patient's positive changes through blood tests to check hormone levels, the doctor will adjust the dose accordingly. The interval of testing is usually 6-8 weeks, when the results are good, the test will be repeated after 6 months to 1 year.
Hypothyroidism is an uncommon disease that can be completely controlled with medication. Therefore, patients should not be too confused and worry, affect the spirit and the treatment process. The best way is to stay comfortable, follow the treatment protocol, take medication as directed, and follow up with an appointment to effectively control the disease.
Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Notes
When you are diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, the following should be kept in mind for the most positive change:
- Go to the doctor for regular appointments to monitor the progress of the disease for the most active treatment methods.
- Absolutely not overuse thyroid medicine to lose weight.
- For patients with diabetes who need more attention, observe blood sugar according to the doctor's request.
The most common temporary side effects are hair loss treatments. Don't worry, when the thyroid disease is under control, this phenomenon will disappear.
Do not abuse, voluntarily use drugs for a long time to avoid hyperthyroidism turning to hypothyroidism.
To best support effective treatment in addition to strictly complying with the treatment process as advised by your doctor, you should change daily habits to have a comfortable spirit and good health such as:
- Eat a suitable diet, limit foods that are harmful to thyroid disease.
- Should exercise regularly every day, about 15-30 minutes.
- Limit staying up late, sleeping enough 7-8 hours a day.
Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are the two most common diseases in the world and there are effective therapies for both medical and surgical treatment. The above information hopefully will help you better understand hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. When there are abnormal manifestations related to the thyroid, we should not subjectively need to go to the hospital to examine and get an accurate diagnosis from specialist doctors, to avoid prolonged conditions causing complications, making it difficult to treat.
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The site cannot and does not contain medical advice. The medical information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals.