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What Tests Should Pregnant Women Do During Pregnancy?

Pregnant women need to do many types of tests to be able to monitor the condition of themselves and their babies. What types of tests do pregnant women need to perform, and what do they mean? Let’s find out with Diag.

Why Are Tests Needed During Pregnancy?

During pregnancy, expectant mothers are prone to anemia and other changes. So, it is necessary to carry out tests to make the appropriate adjustments and monitor the health of both mother and baby to ensure they are safe and healthy.

Bood tests, urine tests, and diabetes tests periodically check your general health during pregnancy.

The mother will undertake tests for the fetus, such as double tests, triple tests, NIPT tests, and tests for infectious diseases that can be transmitted to the fetus and cause congenital disease.

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What Tests Should I Take During Pregnancy?
Pregnancy Blood Tests

Blood tests are basic, core tests that pregnant women need to undertake. Based on the test index, the doctor will check for conditions such as anemia, identify blood type for urgent blood transfusion when needed, and determine Rh + or Rh- to detect early cases of mother-child blood group abnormalities and iron content.

The blood test results also help to assess general health and predict the situations where diseases may occur in both mother and baby.

So, what stage of pregnancy requires a blood test? Because blood is a necessary sample for all kinds of tests that pregnant women need to perform, blood tests are taken periodically at each prenatal visit, especially in the first 3 months of pregnancy.

Urine Tests During Pregnancy

Just like a blood test, based on the results of a urine test, different substances in the urine help detect and prevent risks allowing mothers to monitor their health status.

When to have a urine test during pregnancy? Pregnant women need a urine test in the following situations:

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– First prenatal check-up to diagnose kidney diseases or urinary tract infections.

– When entering the 12th week of pregnancy to screen for potential diseases such as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or diabetes.

– When the pregnancy is over 20 weeks, it is necessary to do a urine test to screen and diagnose dangerous diseases such as gestational hypertension or preeclampsia.

– When there are any symptoms of a UTI, such as painful urination or a burning sensation. UTI in pregnancy can lead to amniotic infection, an infection in the fetus.

Testing for Gestational Diabetes 

Another type of test to protect pregnant women’s health is the gestational diabetes test. The condition occurs when blood sugar is too high compared to the prescribed level or because of impaired glucose tolerance.

As mothers must produce 3 times more insulin than usual to stabilize blood sugar, when there is not enough insulin, it will lead to high sugar levels causing gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually occurs in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, affecting the health of mother and baby.

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When the mother has diabetes, the baby becomes used to the mother’s high blood sugar (as the baby is nourished by the mother’s blood during pregnancy). When the baby is born, the baby is no longer transferred from the mother’s blood through the placenta, so there is a risk of hypoglycemia in the newborn. Hypoglycemia in newborns can cause coma or brain damage.

When should a gestational diabetes test be performed? The ideal time for pregnant women to take it is usually between 24 and 28 weeks, but it will be earlier if the pregnant woman is at high risk.

Double test | Triple test During Pregnancy

Double tests measure quantitatively the substances in the mother’s blood secreted by the placenta, which are free β-hCG and PAPP-A. From there, it helps to detect diseases related to chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome (Trisomy 21), Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18), and Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13).

When to do a Double test?  It should be done around 11 to 13 weeks of pregnancy.

* Edwards syndrome causes slow growth before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) and low birth weight.

* Patau syndrome can cause intellectual disabilities or motor disorders in children.

Triple tests help to screen for malformations and defects in the fetus based on the mother’s blood test results. Unlike the Double test, which can detect Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13), the Triple test helps determine the risk of neural tube defects.

When is the Triple test performed? From 15 to 20 weeks, mothers will do the Triple test. To ensure the most accurate results, the ideal time to perform the Triple test is between 16-18 weeks.

NIPT Test

Because small pieces of DNA (coming from the mother’s cells and cells from the placenta) are often identical to the fetal DNA, analysis of the small pieces of DNA is needed to help detect certain genetic abnormalities early on. The test causes no harm to the unborn baby.

When is a NIPT test needed? Pregnant women will need to have a NIPT test from the 10th week of pregnancy.

*The placenta is the tissue in the uterus that connects to the fetus and is the source of blood supply from the mother to the fetus.

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Testing for Mother-to-Child Diseases

When the mother has diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, rubella, or syphilis, the chances of the baby being infected will be very high.

Specifically, 90% of babies are born with a chance of being infected with the hepatitis B virus if the mother has hepatitis B, with a rate of up to 90% turning into chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis, or liver cancer in adulthood. Fort. If the mother has syphilis or rubella, the fetus will have congenital syphilis or congenital rubella.

It is highly advisable to test as soon as possible for diseases transmitted from mother to child, especially in the first 3 months of pregnancy.

* The article is consulted by medical experts of Diag. However, the above information is for reference only and is not a substitute for medical advice. Before taking any action based on the information provided, please get advice from a medical professional.

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